Recent Articles

Penicillin: Types, Mechanism of action, Pharmacology, Spectrum of Activity and Adverse effects

Penicillin consists of a group of natural and semisynthetic antibiotics containing the chemical nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid, which consists of a β-lactam ring fused to a thiazolidine ring. The naturally occurring compounds are produced by fungi of genus Penicillium. The penicillins differ from one another in the substitution at position 6, where changes in the side […]

Definition of Enterococcus

Members of the genus Enterococcus are gram positive cocci that occur in single or arranged in pairs or short chains. Cells may appear coccobacillary when gram stains are prepared from growth on solid media. Cells tend to be ovoid and in chains when gram stains are prepared form growth in thioglycolate broth. They are facultative […]

Importance of sputum gram stain: Acceptance and Rejection criteria

Gram stain of sputum is a valuable test for the requesting physician. It helps the physician to judge whether the patient he/she has counseled to obtain the sputum has really submitted the sputum sample or merely an oropharyngeal secretion i.e. saliva. Generally, while preparing the sputum smear, purulent part of the sputum is taken and […]

Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar

Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar is a type of differential medium generally used for isolation and enumeration of bacteria from urine specimen form patients suspected of urinary tract infection.  CLED agar supports the growth of all potential uropathogens such as gram negative bacilli belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and gram positive cocci such as Enterococcus spp, […]

Sodium Polyanethol Sulfonate (SPS) disk for differentiation of anaerobic cocci

Principle Sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS) is a commonly used anticoagulant. It is also known as Liquoid. It can inhibit the growth of certain anaerobic bacteria such as Peptostreptococcus anaerobius as well as aerobic Gardnerella vaginalis. So, this property of SPS can be used as a tool for differentiating P. anaerobius from other anaerobic cocci. For […]

Balantidium coli: Morphology, Transmission, Laboratory diagnosis and Treatment

Balantidium coli is a protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Ciliophora, the members of which possess cilia in at least one stage of their life cycles. The ciliophora also have two different types of nuclei, one macronucleus and one or more micronuclei. It has both the trophozoite and cyst forms as part of its life […]

Descriptions of Primary, Secondary and Special Skin lesions

Primary Lesions Primary lesions include the following: Macules are up to 1 cm and are circumscribed, flat discolorations of the skin. Examples: freckles, flat nevi. Patches are larger than 1 cm and are circumscribed, flat discolorations of the skin. Examples: vitiligo, senile freckles, measles rash. Papules are up to 1 cm and are circumscribed, elevated, […]