Virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Alginate: It is a capsular polysaccharide that allows the infecting bacteria to adhere to lung epithelial cell surface and form biofilms which protects the bacteria from antibiotics and body’s immune system.
Pilli: It is a surface appendage that allow adherence of the bacteria to GM -1 ganglioside receptor on host epithelial surface
Neuraminidase: It removes sialic acid residues form GM -1 ganglioside receptors facilitating binding of pilli
Lipopolysachharide: It is an endotoxin that casues sepsis syndrome which characterized by fever, shock, oligouria, leucopenia or leucocytosis, Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Enterotoxin: It interrupts normal gastrointestinal activity leading to diarrhea
Exotoxin A: It is responsible for tissue destruction, and inhibits protein synthesis. It also interrupts cell activity and macrophage response
Exoenzyme S: It inhibits protein synthesis
Phospholipase C: It destroys cytoplasmic membrane, destroys pulmonary surfactant and inactivates opsonins
Elastase: It can cleave immunoglobulins and complement components and disrupt neutrophil activity
Leukocidin: It inhibits neutrophil and lymphocyte function
Pyocyanins: It suppresses other bacteria and disrupt respiratory ciliary activity, causes oxidative damage to tissues, particularly oxygenated tissues such as lungs
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